Black Copper Marans: Complete Breed Guide

Black Copper Marans Complete Breed Guide Feature Image

A hen that seems to be all the rage at the moment is the Black Copper Marans chicken. It’s a beautiful bird that lays very special, dark, chocolate colored eggs.

Although it has not been around that long (1900 or so), it has a history that is fraught with ups and downs and near extinction.

The Marans breed has several varieties, but the one that has captured most attention here in the US recently is the Black Copper Marans.

The Marans breed is said to have appealed to the English because it was supposed to be James Bonds’ favorite egg!

In this complete breed guide we will discuss the history of Black Copper Marans before looking at their behavior and egg laying ability.

Black Copper Marans History and Background

Holding a Black Copper MaransThe original Marans (poule de Marans) come from the area around La Rochelle in south western France. The local chickens were known as ‘swamp chickens’ because the countryside is low and marshy.

These original landrace birds were crossed with the local barnyard hens and game cocks from India and Indonesia that were brought in by the sailors. The gamecocks were traded by them for fresh food and water and so were often plentiful in supply.

These originals came to be known as Marandaise fowl.

In later years the Marans was further refined by the addition of Croad Langshan, Brahmas, Coucou de Malines, Coucou de Rennes and Gatinaise chickens to produce the ancestors of the Maran breed we know today.

The Marans became well known locally in France for the deep red color of its eggs; the plumage however was all over the place.

  • In 1921 a Mrs. Rousseau started breeding with the intention of unifying the plumage and produced the cuckoo Marans – still popular today.
  • 1930 saw the setting of the breed standard in France for this dual purpose bird. They were called Marans after the French port of the same name.
  • By 1932 there were six recognized varieties of Marans – silver cuckoo, white/ black, black copper neck, ermine, golden cuckoo and red.

Skipping forward to post war France, the breed was in a shambles and was near to non-existent. The French Department of Agriculture rescued it from obscurity and began a breeding program. One of the goals of the program was to increase egg production, which it did. By 1952 Marans were producing around 200 eggs/year.

When the program ceased, the cause of the Marans was taken up by numerous amateur enthusiasts who did a great job of keeping and improving the breed.

Holding a Black Copper Marans Purchase Black Copper Marans Chickens

 

Appearance and Breed Standard

Black Copper Marans RoamingThe body of the Black Copper Marans seen from the side forms a wide ‘V’ triangle. The body is strong, long and sturdy. They should be wide through the shoulders.

They have a remarkable plumage. The overall body feathers are deep black which may have a green iridescence in the sunlight.

The hackle feathers are a reddish/coppery tone. The rooster also has copper saddle feathers which cascade over his back. Whilst the hen is not quite so splendidly adorned, it’s still a beautiful bird. The Black Copper Marans are usually clean legged.

The males weigh in around 7-8lb with the hen around 6.5lb. There are bantam Marans but they are incredibly rare and hard to find.

The Black Copper Marans was recognized by the American Poultry Association in 2011 – a recent arrival! Whilst, the clean legged Marans were accepted to the Poultry Club of Great Britain in 1935.

In its home country of France there are nine recognized varieties of Marans.

The standards for the Marans varieties can vary greatly from country to country. It is classified as a ‘Continental’ breed and the type is large fowl.

In the UK, clean legged birds are the standard. In France and the US both clean legged and sparsely feathered legs are recognized.

The single comb, wattles, ear lobes and face are all red. The beak is strong with a slight hook to it, it should be horn colored. Eyes are orange colored. Shanks and feet should be slate or pink, soles of the feet are white as is the skin of the bird.

The Black Copper plumage must be red – no mahogany or yellow/straw tones.

The male should be black breasted red with minimal spotting on his chest. There should be a definite black triangle on the wings and he should have deep red shoulders. The copper colored feathers in the neck, hackles and back are described as ‘lancets’. The hen is black with red hackle markings; very slight red breast markings are acceptable.

Common faults found in this bird are: yellow shanks, white ear lobes, black eyes, ‘off’ coloring and ‘over’ feathering of the legs.

Temperament and Disposition

The Black Copper Marans are said to be quiet and gentle although the roosters can have a tendency to be confrontational with other roosters. This fits with the history of gamecock breeding and is to be expected to a certain degree, although there are fairly docile roosters to be had.

The hens are generally docile but this can vary from bird to bird, they aren’t known for being a ‘cuddly’ bird.

They are an active bird that enjoys foraging and free ranging, but will tolerate confinement fairly well. They are also quite winter hardy, so suitable for the Northern climates given adequate housing and shelter.

Egg Laying and Color

Black Copper Marans are renowned for their very dark brown/chocolate eggs. All Marans birds lay a dark brown egg, but the Black Copper is sought after for its’ egg color being especially ‘chocolate-y’.

The fewer eggs a Black Copper hen lays, the darker the color. If your hen is a good layer you will not get the darkest color on the eggs. The pigment overlay of the egg is a finite source, so once the ‘ink’ starts to get low, the color gets lighter. We talk about egg color more here.

Some eggs will also have the darker colored speckles – much as Welsummer eggs do.

Egg color can also be cyclical – at the beginning of the laying season you will get very dark eggs but by the end, the color will have lightened considerably.

On average a hen will give you around 3 eggs/week, which works out to around 150-200 eggs/year.

This means that the Maran is an average layer in quantity, but the quality of the egg is said to be unsurpassed.

The hens’ are said to good setters and mothers but not overly broody.

If you are interested in buying Black Copper Marans here is a good buyer’s tip for you:

Beware of buying hens based on the color of the egg in a photo. Eggs that are exposed to the air for a period of time tend to be darker. The red pigment oxidizes in the air and turns the pigment darker.

This trick has been used numerous times by unscrupulous folks who want to sell you an ‘average’ bird. Rely on the reputation of the breeder and any feedback you may find.

Is the Black Copper Marans Right for You?

If you are looking for an egg laying superstar – the Black Copper Marans will disappoint you. But if you are looking for a beautifully marked hen that lays very dark eggs, the Black Copper Marans is for you!

Please remember though, the hens that lay the darkest eggs also lay the fewest, the quicker the egg passes through the system the lighter the shell color.

The Marans society has come up with a color scale for the eggs labeled 1-9 with 9 being the darkest and supposedly the best – do they taste different? I really don’t know. The hen that lays less than a ‘4’ egg, is not considered to be a Marans.

If you are in the market for some of these rare gems, be prepared to part with some serious money.

Yes, you can get hatchery birds for under $10.00 each, but they pale in comparison to the more expensive and better quality birds.

A bird from a quality breeder can set you back anywhere from $30.00 – $ 60.00 per bird – a bit too expensive? Try some hatching eggs – around $75.00/dozen.

If you think that the price is a ‘rip-off’, just look at some photos of the difference between hatchery and breeder stock.

Sometimes it is a bit difficult to tell the difference with some breeds, but not so this one. The plumage should be splendidly colored, not washed out or muted. The birds should stand tall and proud and be muscular through the shoulders – the roosters seem to wear their colors very regally.

If kept in colder climates special consideration must be given to their large combs. This type of comb stands tall, and far off the head of the rooster. This makes the Maran more susceptible to frostbite. Severe Frostbite can actually cause the comb to die off.

If you are interested in experiencing this rare breed, hatchery chicks may be your best bet if you are on a budget. But if your goal is to win first place at the expo, then you may want to consider investing in a Maran from a reputable breeder.

Breeders are especially happy to talk about their favorite birds, so spending some time with an enthusiast will only help you learn more about your new feathered friend.

Summary

Marans are still considered rare in the US, especially the Black Copper Marans. They are much more common in their homeland of France.

These birds are expensive for good reason. The time and effort it takes to produce such a gorgeous bird that can breed true down the line is enormous.

A good quality bird is simply breathtaking with the contrasting black and copper plumage.

If you are serious about getting some of these rare beauties, it makes sense to buy the best you can, that way you can work to produce good quality chicks of your own.

Does the dark chocolate egg make it all worth it? That’s for you to decide.

Do you have some of these ‘high society’ birds in your flock? If so, let us know in the comments section below…

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Comments

  1. Mike says

    I have about 10 chickens I’m looking to get about 10 more but I want a variety of colors of eggs already have several brown white and light green do you have a selection that I can buy that would have different colored eggs thank you

  2. Ingrid says

    I have a mixed flock, 1 freedom ranges, 3 Ameraucana, 1 white laced wyandotte, 4 marans, 1 buff opringtons, and 1 frizzle banty hen, and 4 chicks from the breeding my hodan rooster with the amaraucan and the buff, I use the banty to hatch out my eggs, i have a rainbow of eggs, and I found they get along great and I have had a few go broody, I figured out how to stop that… I tried playing videos of chicks peeping and the next day they stopped being broody. I also had a bully and she would pluck feathers and eat them from the other chickens, I have removed her from the flock. I have been told I spoil my chickens, everyday they get greens, fruit and veggies 3-4 times a week. I also hang corn on the cob, fresh and frozen pumpkin pieces and heads of romaine lettuce and cored apples to keep them busy.
    they also get flax seeds with laying pellets, grit and oyster shells. They have a stall with natural branches and tree parts for roosts, and a outside covered area. I have a timer for a sun light that is on 10-12 hrs a day. and a heat lamp is colder months.

  3. Kathy jones says

    I am getting one or two dark brown eggs every day but didn’t know if are Marans? Pls post a pic of the them. I have around 120 chickens we do collect the eggs but chickens are pets.

    • The Happy Chicken Coop says

      Hi Kathy,

      If you look at the Egg Laying and Color section there is a video there that will help you 🙂

      Claire

  4. Dawn Golden says

    I recently lost my beautiful BCM Roo and a hen to a raccoon. Believe me, when I say this I was sick and am still upset about it. I was lucky that I had some eggs from the hen who had just started laying. I am anxiously waiting for hatch day March 2. I have set 3 eggs. My Roo was fantastic and striking looking and was a good rooster who was gentle and attentive. My hen was very sweet. I’m hoping for at least a Roo. I purchased 2 pullet BCM chicks so I can start breeding again. God willing I will. The hen’s eggs were the most beautiful Chocolate Brown I have ever seen.

  5. Lisa Hein-Larsen says

    After being disappointed by the egg shell color my marans (the French Black Copper variety)are currently laying, I have place an order with Greenfire Farm. Hopefully the shell color will be a higher numbe on the Marans egg shell color chart. Everything stated in this article is so spot on in regards to the breed characteristics. I have over a dozen of the breed currently. The breed in general lays a darker brown egg in general that does fade over time.

  6. pauline dickens says

    I am currently incubating 48 black Copper Maran eggs due to hatch the week of Easter wish me luck

  7. Rhonda says

    Great article !!! A good FBC marans are hard to find. I have a few that lay beautiful eggs but their appearance is not the best each one has something wrong with them. i cant have roosters where i live so i cant breed here. love this breed

  8. Breane Bednash says

    There is def a big difference between hatchery black copper Marans and French Black Copper Marans imported from Marans France . I purchased a breeding pair that was breed from imported lineage & also bought one hatchery bird for comparison – Vastly different birds.

  9. Jacqueline Viton says

    I have 2 Marans. One is a black copper and the 2nd I think is a black maran although she has brown around her face. They are very smart and friendly. Haven’t started laying eggs yet.

  10. Nancy B says

    Being the doting grandmother I am, when my granddaughter wanted to raise chickens I encouraged her. She lives in town so asked if she could house her chickens in our unused henhouse. She bought seven layers of unknown breed-but good layers. For her high school graduation we gifted her with five Americauna chicks and five black copper maran chicks. The BCM are beautiful birds and one is a gorgeous rooster. They were hatched about four months ago so we still are waiting for those beautiful eggs. Most of her Marans have very feathery legs. Is that characteristic of the breed?

  11. Betsy Barnevelder says

    I have been after a pure true French black copper Maran for some time now, however can not find a breeder within driving distance of the Midlands, UK, where I live. They always appear to be some sort of utility breed for egg production, although this is unimportant to me. Oh well, I will keep looking..

  12. Alyssa says

    I have 5 black copper marans. One is a huge rooster with beautiful copper plumage. I bought 3 a few years ago from a good breeder to start breeding with good stock. Now I’m going to be selling my own. I also have an easter egger and silver laced wyandotte.

  13. Adele says

    Take time to read the French Marans Club site.
    It takes awhile to get all the particulars in your mind’s eye. Breeders talk about the slippery genes the BCM have. It is easy to go too dark or too light. If your cocks ear bud has and equal amount of black and copper mixed together you may be getting close.
    It has taken me 10 years to finally have showable cocks, hens, and eggs

    • The Happy Chicken Coop says

      Adele, do you happen to have pictures? I would love to see them…you can post them here or contact me directly.

      Claire

      • Nytowl223 says

        I started out with French BC Marans, but soon discovered they came in Blue, Black, and Splash (no copper!), so I HAD to switch to them! I had a beautiful Blue hen, a nice Splash hen, a beautiful Black hen, and a handsome, well-proportioned, Blue rooster that was VERY attentive to the girls, and was such a gentleman around humans and even other roosters (as long as they didn’t start anything!), and I was SO proud of them!

        Unfortunately, I lost my rooster (who was doing his job of protecting his girls!), and have yet to find a quality rooster again. Even so, at this point, the hens are getting up in years, so will be laying less and less each year, and they weren’t heavy egg layers to begin with!

        So it may be quite a while before I am able to hatch any more Blue/Black/Splash fluffybutts again. 😭 I may have to completely rebuild with hatching eggs, again! Arghhh!!

    • Michelle R Culler says

      do you sell hatching eggs from your FBCM? I have been looking to buy some to hatch out but am skeptical of what I find online.

  14. Rick Krause says

    Thank you for the informative article.
    We love our Marans chickens. We are in Oregon southern Willamette valley.

    We just incubator hatched 17 chicks from 25 eggs.
    Seven of the 12 BCM eggs we bought from east coast breeder hatched. Ten of the 13 from our flock hatched.
    We have both Black Copper and Cuckoos.

  15. Cheree Hull says

    Do you happen to know if the hens ever lose their copper colored feathers after a time, possibly even from the first molt? I came across a picture of mine when they were about 5 months old and was struck by how beautiful they were…but now, just under 2 years later, very little of that copper remains. What happened? Is this just poor breeding?
    (We raise them for eggs, to help with the garden etc–not for show or anything)

  16. CostumeLooks says

    Colors: The male Black Copper Marans is black with copper on his head and saddle, while the female is almost completely black, with just a bit of copper coloring on the head and neck.

  17. April McGhee says

    I have a black copper maran rooster and hen. Our rooster is very aggressive. I have to carry a stick or shovel with me into the coop or he will get attack. The hen has always been a very curious, seemed very tame. Today she tried to get me. I was getting eggs so maybe she was being protective over them. They are beautiful birds but every chicken is different. Just because you read the roosters are docile and gentle doesn’t always mean you will get that.

    • JC says

      The more you use aggressive posture, and come at your rooster with sticks, shovels and other weapons the more aggressive he will get. You are validating his view of you as a threat to his flock because that’s exactly what you are. Never strike a rooster,
      Never threaten them with items, they have exceptional memory and will not forget. His job is to protect his flock and he’s doing that.

      If you want the aggressive behavior to subside you know have to double your efforts to change his opinion of you. There are ways to teach roosters that you are not a threat, hold them on your side while you do chores, sit with them and pet them, offer treats to their flock while holding them kindly. If a rooster is going through puberty and having testosterone surges utilize a dog crate with proper cover from the elements with food and water inside where he can see his flock still and safely calm down.

  18. JC says

    I recommend you actually read the APA SOP before publishing articles about breeds. Also you may want to obtain actual photos (non hatchery stock) of the breed you are writing about. The rooster in your photo above is not a Marans by APA standard…

    When judging Marans, judges do not require an egg sample from the bird so saying that a bird with an egg any less than a 4 on the Marans egg color card is not a Marans is ridiculous. Egg color with Marans and other birds with heavy blooms varies throughout the laying season and with age. Birds should not be bred only because of egg color, in fact this practice is doing great harm to the breed as it’s all most back yard breeders focus on, no regard for the actual SOP of the breed.

    According to the APA SOP Marans are feather legged and they also have feathers on their outer toes. In the UK Marans are clean legged, the APA decided to follow the standard of the birds in France as that is their origin and they call for feathered legs and outer toes.

  19. Anik says

    I got a rooster black copper maran and I was wondering if his beak and legs are going to change color? They are yellow and he is not a year old. Nice site web by the way!!

  20. Meg says

    I acquired my first chicks this spring, born on Ash Wednesday. 4 are French marans breeds (including a wheaten pullet) and 3 what I thought were FBCM. Feathered legs, black and cream chicks. By seven weeks they were showing black iridescent plumage, except for the outer two wing feathers which are bright white. Typical for FCM, but they were solid otherwise and developing the copper hackles.

    But as we head into week 8, I’m starting to see whitish dappling low on the breast! Can cuckoo marans have copper hackles? Are these crosses?

  21. chickens says

    Hi there I’ve owned 11 chickens two were accidental roosters and given away and we recently had our first death of a hen she snapped her neck in the night falling from the perch we think and a little after that one of our other hens died struggling to breathe we were planning on getting more hens (we’re thinking olive eggers and black copper Marans) On the chance, we do get a Maran rooster we think we might keep him if he seems to be a good rooster (Our first accidental rooster was a Rhode island and was wonderful always straight up looking around let the hens eat the treats but we gave him away before he started to crow we weren’t planning on a rooster, our second was a horrible rooster and bullied the hens that didn’t bully him we gave him away) So anyways I was wondering if anyone here has had a black copper Maran rooster and could tell me how he was thanks

    • James Fair says

      if your bird is struggling to breathe, it may be that it’s crop is packed full ( Impacted Crop ). Feel the crop, right side of breast; it should not be too hard or too big, maybe a bit bigger than a golf ball if it has just fed, not as big as a softball or even a baseball. Chickens can’t get air if the crop is pressing on their lungs. You could massage the crop gently, but don’t hold the bird upside down, like I was told: my dandy yodelling rooster was Dead! in less than five minutes when I did that. His airway got blocked.
      If you can get a licenced rehabilitation expert, then a tube can be placed into the crop to suck out the food or other junk, which may be fermenting. Be careful!
      It can also be squirting liquid poop because it’s intestinal bacteria may be out of balance. A probiotic is necessary. I have used yogurt, and also apple cider vinegar with the yeast mother in the bottle, not pastuerized vinegar, just a tablespoonful per gallon of water, for five days, was what I was told by a hatchery.
      Caution: I am not a veterinarian; I just want you to know what I have learned the hard way. I miss my rooster.
      I keep getting a lump in my throat.

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