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The Complete Guide to Chicken Feed

The Complete Guide to Chicken Feed Blog Cover

Chicken feed may not be something you give a great deal of thought to – you go buy a bag for your hens and that’s it.
Companies that manufacture chicken feed actually give a great deal of thought, time and research to feeding all poultry exactly what they need.
If your hens are eating the right feed you will be rewarded with healthy hens than lay lots of eggs for you. But feeding them the wrong feed can be a disaster for their health and also egg production.
In our complete guide to chicken feed, we are going to take a look at: basic requirement requirements, what goes into each type of feed, the perfect feed for your flock and lots more.

Perfect Feed for Your Flock

Chapter 1

Perfect Feed for Your Flock


Treats and Snack Advice

Chapter 2

Treats and Snack Advice


Chicken Feeders 101

Chapter 3

Chicken Feeders 101


Basic Feed Requirements

Feeding ChickensOver many years now the poultry feed industry has researched and refined the essential nutritional requirements of poultry, from chicks to adult, from chickens to quail, turkey and others.
The feed that they produce is formulated to maximize the growth and egg laying potential of each bird.
Needless to say this is a huge improvement over the way our great-grandparents would have fed chickens! Back in the ‘old days’ chickens would have to survive on what they found in the barnyard and any offerings from the farmers’ wife.
Research has shown that many nutrients are needed by all birds to a greater or lesser degree, your feed should include:

  • All feed contains protein. The amount of protein will vary based on the age of the bird or type of bird (more on this later).
  • There are usually some amino acids – lysine and methionine are the commonest.
  • Vitamins – most often A, E, D3 and B12 plus trace mineral elements such as phosphorus and copper sulfate.
  • Enzymes to help with digestion and of course fiber in the form of the grain in the product.
  • Some feeds may have other additives such as Omega 3, but this varies brand to brand. This added Omega 3 increases the egg’s Omega 3 count, making eggs healthier for people to eat.

Always read your product labels so that you know what they contain. You will find the labels attached to the bottom of the feed sack or in the case of smaller bags of feed, it may be printed onto the bag itself.

Chicken Feed Terminology Explained

Chicken feed has several key phrases and if you don’t know them the feed bag labels will likely confuse you!
Here’s a list of the most frequent terms:

  • Pellets: Chicken feed is made into pelletized form for ease of use and decreased waste.
  • Crumbles: Pellets that have been reduced to chick size pieces for ease of eating.
  • Mash: Mash is basically unprocessed feed. The particles are very small almost powder-like. It can be used for chicks or adults and it can be fed dry or wet.
  • Fermented: This is any type of chicken feed that has been mixed with water and allowed to ferment naturally.
  • Medicated: This is feed that has been treated with a coccidiostat to help chicks to overcome any possible attack by coccidian protozoa.
  • Un-Medicated: Chick feed without a coccidiostat.

Perfect Feed for Your Flock

The Best Chicken Feed for Layers

Scratch and Peck Feeds Naturally Free Organic Layer Feed
  • Scratch and Peck’s layers feed is one of my hens’ favorite
  • Non-GMO, soy free and crucially its USDA certified organic
  • Milled right here in the US
  • Egg yolks turned a deeper golden orange color and are bursting with flavor

See Price on Amazon

Once your pullets start laying eggs they can be changed over to layer feed which is usually around 16% protein. Don’t move your hens onto layer feed until they start lying, as it can damage their kidneys.
From now on layer feed will make up the majority of your chickens’ diet.
Layer feed has less protein (typically 16%) and in general does not contain as many vitamins. However, this can vary from brand to brand. Feed manufactures work to ensure their feed has the right balance of calcium, protein and other key minerals and vitamins.
At the moment our favorite is Scratch and Peck Feeds Naturally Free Organic Layer Feed. It meets all the requirements mentioned above, its non-GMO, organic, and milled here in the US.
It is best to change gradually since an abrupt change can cause diarrhea or other gastric problems. If you have used crumbles up until now, don’t worry about changing up to pellet food. The birds will adjust nicely and pellets are less wasteful.

Comparison Table

Other Types of Chicken Feed

Feed for Meat Birds
If you are raising meat birds, you will know they require a much higher protein content to keep up with their rapid development.
If you don’t give them sufficient protein they will fail to thrive and you may have significant health problems with them.
The life of a broiler chicken is very short, sometimes as little as 5 weeks before they are culled. During this time they need a high protein diet, between 22-24% is recommended. Several feed companies have made it easy for us. They make a 22% protein feed specifically for broilers.
This can be fed from hatch to ‘dispatch’ without changing or modifying feed. The feed contains all of the essentials needed for rapid growth in these birds.
All Flock Feed

The Best Chicken Flock Feed

Manna Pro All Flock<
Manna Pro 16-Percent All Flock with Probiotics
  • Perfect for your flock if they are different ages
  • This feed contains the key vitamins and minerals for a balanced diet and is also in crumble form so the chicks and easily digest it
  • Also includes Probiotics to support digestion

See Price on Amazon

All Flock feed is as they say; it’s suitable for a variety of birds including: chickens, ducks and turkeys. However the amount of protein needed by turkeys and game birds specifically is much higher.
It will generally contain around 16% protein plus key vitamins and minerals. It should not be used for birds under 7 weeks of age.
Personally, I would only use this as a maintenance feed for grown birds.
Fermented Feed
Many folks make fermented feed for their flock – it’s easy to do, especially if you have a small flock.
Fermented feed is actually healthier for your birds.
The process of soaking the feed and grains, releases many of the locked in nutrients making them available to the birds.
Fermenting your feed also stretches your hard earned money – you will use less feed. It is a simple process to start and keep going. It really won’t take up much of your time and your hens will thank you for it. If you are interested in making your own fermented feed, please see our article here.

Which Type of Feed for Chicks

The Best Feed for Chicks

MannaPro Chicken Starter Grower Crumble
  • This is our favorite feed for chicks. It contains Probiotics and key essential amino acids
  • Package is resalable to prevent feed from going stale
  • Your chicks should be fed this feed from when they hatch until they are six weeks old

See Price on Amazon

Chick feed can roughly be divided into two: starter and grower feed. What is the difference?
Starter feed is the feed you use from the point of hatching. The chicks will eat this from hatch until they are six weeks old. At week 6 you can gradually change over to grower ration. Why I hear you ask?
Starter feed has 20-24% protein content to give the chick’s metabolism all the energy it needs for rapid growth.
Grower feed has slightly less protein at around 18%. You may think this is not a big difference, but an overload of protein can cause kidney problems later in life.

The Best Grower Feed for Chicks

Prairie's Choice Non-GMO Backyard Chicken Feed<
Prairie’s Choice Non-GMO Backyard Chicken Feed
  • A 100% all natural non-GMO grower feed for your chicks
  • Contains all the key nutrition requirements needed for your chicks to grow into healthy pullets
  • Milled and farmed right here in the US

See Price on Amazon

In general, chick feed is higher in protein and contains several important vitamins to get the chicks off to a good start. It is also significantly lower in calcium than layer feed.
A quick word on finisher and developer feeds; these are designed to ‘finish’ pullets before they change over to layer ration.
If you are a purist on feeding your hens, you may well want to give them this while waiting to change over to 16% layer feed. I personally don’t use finished feeds, instead I feed my chicks the grower feed until they commence laying and I have not seen any problems from doing this.

Chicken Treats and Snacks Advice

Your hens come running to greet you when you get home, when you leave the house and any other time that seems good to them. I used to think they were pleased to see me, but I think they have ulterior motive…treats!
Giving your girls some treats generates a happy feeling all the way round, but hens are cunning.
You will soon find them camped on your doorstep looking for a handout before you can leave the house, sort of like a hostage situation!
Try to ensure the treats you give them are healthy: blueberries, blackberries, mealworms, scratch; bird seed all are good in moderation. Below we have picked out some perfect treats for your chickens.
I try to limit my ladies to treats first thing in the morning – they all escort me to fill up the bird feeders in my yard.
In addition to treats you should also supplement your chickens with grit and oyster shells:

  • Grit: This is necessary for chicks and chickens to be able to process food other than feed. All chickens need grit so make sure it’s available if they can’t free range.
  • Oyster Shell: Vital for hen health and strong egg shells. If the hen does not get enough calcium, she will start taking it from her body, leading to potential fractures.

Making Your Own Chicken Feed

Some folks like to make their own feed – I say more power to them. In today’s world where we are always rushed and balancing home and work, feed manufacturers have taken all the guesswork and labor out of feeding our hens.
In order to give your flock complete nutrition you will need to know the exact nutritional requirements of your flock (protein, vitamins, minerals etc.) in order to provide optimal healthy feed for them.
You will also need enough space to mix all your ingredients together.
Making flock rations is not as simple as slinging together a bit of this and some of that. It really is quite a precise science to get the equation right.
If you have the time and inclination to make your own that’s wonderful, but quite frankly if you have a small backyard flock of a few hens, you may find that it is too time consuming and expensive for you.
Something to be aware of: If feed is left around for a long period of time it will start to mold, so mixing 50lb of feed for 3 hens is probably not in your best interests.

Chicken Feeders 101

Once you have found the perfect feed, you will need to get a chicken feeder to place the feed into.
If you have kept chickens before, you will know that they will eat off the ground; they don’t care!
However, a chicken feeder will prevent waste and helps to keep feed fresh. You have two main types of feeders:

  1. Gravity feeders
  2. Automatic feeders

Automatic Feeders

The Best Chicken Feeder

Chicken Feeder<
Grandpa’s Feeders Automatic Chicken Feeder
  • My favorite chicken feeder
  • On-demand feeder means your hens will have access to feed all day round, which ensures optimal laying and healthy chickens
  • It also helps to eliminate feed spillage, keeps pests away and as a result means you save on feed cost

See Price on Amazon

Whilst automatic feeders are more expensive they can save you a significant amount of money in feed bills.
The feed is enclosed inside the feeder which means it stays fresh for days; even if it rains outside.
They also do an important job of preventing pests and rodents from accessing the feed.
These feeders generally work by the hen standing on a pedal to open the feed box and then she can access the feed.
Gravity Feeders

The Best Hanging (Gravity) Feeder

Gravity Feeder<
Miller Galvanized Hanging Poultry Feeder
  • Large capacity means it is ideal for 12 chickens comfortably
  • Small feed section to prevent chickens sitting on-top of food
  • Strong galvanized steel will withstand harsh winters

See Price on Amazon

Gravity feeders are by far the most common feeders. They operate on the gravity principle; you fill them up at the top and the feed trickles down as it is eaten.
Simple yet effective.
They can be free standing, hanging or wall mounted.
As they are fairly cheap you should buy several to prevent one bully hen blocking access to a feeder.


There are several other things to think about when you are buying chicken feed. Here in the US many folks these days want their flock to have organic feed (no GMOs). In the UK, Europe and Australasia you don’t have that particular problem to worry about.
Some people want their feed to be organic, soy or corn free. It does exist but can be difficult to find and they will cost you more than regular feed.
A word of caution about advertising – you will come across labels that say the feed is ‘vegetarian’. That simply means there are no animal products used in the feed. Chickens are omnivores and will eat almost anything!
This has been a gallop through chicken feeds for you. We hope that you found our definite guide to chicken feed interesting and helpful.
If you make your own feed rations, or have any comments to add, we would love to hear from you in the comments section below…


Disclosure: We may earn affiliate commissions at no cost to you from the links on this page. This did not affect our assessment of products. Find full disclosure here.

33 thoughts on “The Complete Guide to Chicken Feed

    1. Hi Bethany,
      You only need to start feeding them it once you start giving them treats. I would personally just make sure they have access to a small handful at all the time – you can use a small plastic tub 🙂

      1. Is this every time you give them treats or just have the grit/oysters out in general once you start to incorporate treats?

        1. Once they’ve started laying, they should have oyster shells always available, in a separate container from their food.
          Grit should always be available, and given starting from baby chicks. Many say that you don’t need to give it if they free range. Opinions on that differ…

        2. The grit grinds the food and stays in the gizzard for some time. I throw a handful every day or two and they know when they need it. The oyster shell is a Vitamin D supplement and is also a in general addition.

  1. I have 6 ISA Brown, 6 Leghorn, 1 Welsummer. Focusing on the ISA Browns, they are generally laying 2.1-2.2oz eggs but one girl that I haven’t identified yet is consistently laying 2.9-3.7oz eggs. They are all free choice and I do let them free range for hours almost every day. I always have crushed oyster shell and grit in separate feeders for them. Any idea why one girl would be laying such large eggs when she has access to the same diet as all the other chickens? The welsummer is about 6 years old and lays about 2-3 times a week and the others are about 9 months old and lay almost every day. Thank you!

    1. It’s probably genetic, some lay larger eggs than others. Since she does lay such large eggs, watch her for any difficulties she may have with them.

  2. Hi since mine are going to be dual purpose Orpingtons about 12 of them would the 16% protien be better for them or the 22% I currently have them on chick feed with free choice grit and mealworms as a treat in the evenings. Thanks

    1. Hi Andrea,
      I would start them on 16% and then if there are any problems you can move them up to the 22%. However I imagine 16% will be fine.

  3. Very often the “crumbles” for the peeps that you can buy is too coarse for the babies – especially if they are weak from neglect during their trip from the breeder.
    These days, I use my coffee grinder (cleaned of coffee grinds) to make the crumbles even smaller so the lil peckers can get their beaksies around these to eat.
    Dusterizing the crumbles is not a good idea, but a few pulsed grinds seems to do the trick.
    Since doing this, I have not lost any peeps I have purchased.

  4. I have six hens at 15 weeks old. When do you feed then veggie or fruit scraps. Do you wait till they are laying eggs. Thanks for the information

  5. I currently have 8 chickens that are laying well. I usually get at least 4-5 eggs per day. I am feeding them feed meant for meat birds because I think they need more protein in the cold weather here in northwest Illinois. What do you think about this?

    1. You really need to be feeding them layer feed, as broiler feed doesn’t have enough calcium. Also, in the cold winters, a bit of ‘carbs’ before bed will help to keep them warm overnight (a bit of scratch feed or corn about 1/2 hour before bedtime is good). Higher protein for layers is really only recommended when molting – and some up the protein during really hot spells because their feed consumption drops in high heat. Personally, for my chickens, I mix my own scratch feed (regular scratch, black oil sunflower seeds, and dried soldier fly larvae. I alter the ratio of each component based on the season – more protien during heat waves & molting, more ‘carbs’ during winter, and I up the sunflower seed ratio in winter a smidge, too. I give this to them about 45 min. before bedtime (I use the treats to ‘call them in’ from free ranging), and feed layer feed, with additional oyster shell out in cups for them to self -select. I also have containers of grit available in the winter. My girls have been healthy& happy on this regimen.

  6. Where could I purchase a pair or trio of silkied Seramas? I would love to breed these. I currently have Bearded Belgian D’Anvers and they are sweet and good egg layers. The roo is aggressive and very loud. Also have four golden Sebrights with them. The Seramas would have their own digs. I love chickens as pets! Thank you.
    P.S. I live in RI.

  7. I have 7 week old chicks and chicks that are less than a week old (they are in separate brooders). The younger ones are on a feed and grow crumble but the older ones are still on starter pellets. Do I need to switch their food?

    1. the 7 week olds can be on feed and grow crumble still until the little ones catch up to go to starter pellets.

  8. Hi, I have a few sarama hens, and one rooster, who is the friendliest guy ever. Just wondering how to treat them. The same as every other chicken? Or is there something more specific to their magic?

  9. My 2 chickens are about 18 months old and are providing about 10 -12 eggs between them per week. I have them on layena crumbles, scratch and fruit and vegetables daily. Also grit is available. Just how much of the crumbles should they be eating per day? Thank you!

    1. A good general rule of thumb is 3/4 cup per hen per day. Less for a rooster. That said, a hen won’t overeat on layer feed, so as long as they aren’t wasting it by flicking it out of the feeder, I would put more than that out for them. That way, if they need more due to cold weather , or their general metabolism, then they have enough feed. (Note: this is only a rule of thumb. Hybrids such as Isa Browns, Red Stars, etc. tend to be more efficient with their feed, while dual purpose breeds need more because they use it to put on body weight as well as into egg production. Pay attention to how much your girls eat & adjust as needed. Know that they will eat a bit more when molting, during very cold snaps, and peak spring egg production, slightly less during heat waves.)

  10. Do you have any info on quail regarding their eggs and ability to remove ticks and bugs? Can they be raised similar to chickens?

  11. Hi, I have 3 Road Island Reds and 2 barred rock hens, I just started getting eggs about 12 days ago, I do believe only 2 of the road island reds are laying at this time, they are a few weeks older than my 2 barred rock hens. I want to get them on the best feed for laying hens, but I’m wondering if I should start now when some are not laying or wait till they all start laying eggs. This is my first time raising chickens, I got them as chicks and have a wonderful set up for them and let them free range most days.

  12. I am interested in your information on chicken feeds. I am teaching students on poultry production and would need some of your products.
    Solomon Islands National University

  13. I don’t think you really mean this – in your web site (read carefully…last sentence) “Once your pullets start laying eggs they can be changed over to layer feed which is usually around 16% protein. Don’t move your hens onto layer feed until they start lying, as it can damage their kidneys.”

    1. I agree with you, Anne. General consensus of what I have read is that you can start feeding it (layer feed) to them a couple of weeks before their expected first lay – so at around 18 weeks of age for standard bred chickens. That said, feeding Layer feed when they should be getting started or grower (i.e. getting extra calcium for an extended period) DOES damage the kidneys by making them work too hard at filtering out excess calcium.

  14. Do Brahmas and Jersey Giants need a different feed? Any guidance for feeding these breeds (from day old chick to adult) would be most appreciated.

    1. Grit is really just small stones/rock fragments that the birds ingest. They stay in their gizzard to help the bird grind up their food until the stones themselves get ground down & pas out of the body through their digestive track.. If they free range, or you give them scratch or fresh veggies, etc., this is critical. Most grit that you purchase is ‘smashed’ granite in sizes roughly 1/4 inch or so. (smaller for chick sized grit & grower sized grit) Note: If they free range, they can, depending on the area, get grit from the ground by picking up small pebbles – when the ground isn’t frozen.

  15. I have one year old chickens and I’m always trying to improve. I have two wall mounted feeders. One I mix lay crumbles and cracked corn. I believe I’m going back to pellets to see if it helps with the waste. They kick the feed all over the place. The next feeder I mix a assortment of chicken feed/seeds and black sunflower seeds. They also waste feed trying to get to just the sunflower seeds.
    I have tiny wall feeders. One with crushed oyster shells and the other with grit. I also mix lightly some Damascus earth in their feed I’ve also recently decided to again start mixing in oats in their feed
    I am going to introduce A little Blue Buffalo puppy dog food without grain this week And on Saturday they get three hand fulls of meal worms. Plus a lot of vegetables. A cabbage once a week hanging on a bungee cord to help entertain them as I cannot free range due to varmints. A big question I have is I recently had my hardware store assembled sewer pipe into a feeder that I saw posted. I decided to fill it with WHOLE Corn as I read that this was much more nutritious than cracked corn…..they WON’T eat the whole corn. Are they crazy??? I have 15 happy hens with several different breeds. Can you tell me if I should change what I’m doing and why they won’t eat whole corn. And they all seem to only want to lay eggs in only two nests

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